PATALAGARUDI (Cocculus hirsutus)
Patalagarudi has various synonyms in Ayurvedic texts, viz. sreyasi, sthapani, pracina, rasa, papaveli, vanatiktaka, patha, ambastha, viddhakarni etc. Bhavaprakasa has mentioned it as an apharodisiac herb and an alleviator of toxins by its special potency or prabhava. There is a mention of this plant with its description as a creeper, deep rooted, with purplish black drupes etc.
The plant grows all over India, especially in dry regions. It is a straggling shrub, with softly villous young parts and resembles the plant path. The leaves are simple, alternate, truncate at the base and ovate-oblong in upper parts. The flowers are very small, unisexual and green. The male flowers in axillary cymose panicles and female flowers, 1-3 together. The fruits, drupes, green when raw and purplish black on ripening. The plant flowers from November to April and fruits in April-May.
The botanical name of patalagarudi is Cocculus hirsutus (Synonym-C. villosus) and it belongs to family Menispermaceae. D- Trilobine and DL- coclaurine from roots, sitosterol, ginnol and monomethyl ether of inositol isolated
From stems trilobine, isotrilobine, coclaurine and magnoflorine isolated. (Indian J. Chem 1976, 14B, 62. Isolation of trilobine, isotrilobine, (+) syringaresinol and protoquercitol from leaves (J. chem. A new triterpenoid alcohol-hirsudiol-iso and its structure determined Isolation of nonacosam – 10- 01 and cohirsine and theirstructure determined. (Terahedron 1987, 43, 5865). A new alkaloid – cocsuline – N2-oxide isolated and characterized
Patalagarudi is pungent in taste, pungent in the post digestive effect and has hot potency. It alleviates kapha and vata doshas. It possesses light. Oily and slimy attributes. It has a special potency as a detoxifier . It is an aphorodisiac and tonic in properties and is used in diseases like arthritis, cystitis, diabetes mellitus. (Bhavaprakasa Nighantu)
The roots and leaves of patalagarudi have great medicinal value and are used both, internally as well as externally for medicinal purpose. The external application of its paste alleviates the toxins. The leaves are cooling, mucilaginous and are useful in eczema.
Internally, it is useful in various diseases. The decoction of its roots, dried ginger and pippali (Piper longum) is given along with milk in rheumatic disorders. To alleviate the abdominal pain, the combination of its roots and latakaranja (Caesalpinia crista) seed, matted in water is given orally. In gonorrhoea, the leaves juice with cumin seed powder and sugar, works well. As a general tonic, the powder of its leaves is recommended along with the milk and rock candy. The roots are useful as an adjunct in diabetes mellitus. Patalgarudi has mild laxative, digesting and appetite stimulant properties. It is used in anorexia, with great benefit. It also works well in asthma, cough and cold. In premature ejaculation, patalagarudi has extremely good results in delaying the ejaculation. The juice of leaves, being diuretic, is salutary in burning micturation and strangury. The roots are useful in serpant bite; also, the roots have digestive, carminative, demulcent, depurative, emollient, tonic and antipyretic properties. Along with poisonous bites, they are useful in leprosy, skin diseases, pruritus, dyspepsia, colic, flatulence, bronchitis, cough, gout, intermittent fever, tubercular glands, hypertension and general debility.
Classical Ayurvedic Preparations