TRIVRT (Operculine turpethum)
Trivrt is one of the herbs mentioned in all ancient scriptures of Ayurveda. It has been known in Ayurveda as virechan or a laxative. Charka has adored Trivrt as the best laxative amongst all. Besides its laxative effect, he has also categorized it as asthapanopaga – adjunct to decoction enemas and bhedaniya – accumulation breaking herb. Maharishi Susruta has described it as vimlapana – anti-inflammatory, especially, in vitiated conditions of kapha. It has been mentioned as adhobhagahara-recana-purgative. Charka has mentioned two varieties of Trivrt like aruna and krsna, meaning the roots white or black colored respectively. The white variety is recommended for children, old persons and convalescents whereas, the black variety which has strong purgative action is advised in strong and constipated persons Vagbhata has also praised Trivrt as a drug of choice amongst all laxatives.
The plant occurs almost throughout India up to an altitude of about 1000 meters. It is sometimes grown in gardens for its beautiful flowers. It is a large perennial twiner with milky juice. The stems are very long, twining, twisted, tough and brown. The leaves vary is shape, 5-10 cm long, large and simple. The flowers are funnel shaped, white, in few flowered cymes. The fruits are globosely, capsules and seeds 4, glabrous and dull black in color. The roots are much branched, reddish black in color. The plant flowers in June and fruits in November.
The botanical name of trivet is Operculina turpethum and it belongs to family Convolvulaceae. An active principle, a glycoside resin an ether insoluble glycoside turpethin and two soluble glycosides namely and turpethin have been reported along with a small amount of volatile oil and a yellow coloring matter. Scopoletin isolated; glucose, rhamnose, fructose obtained by acid and alkaline hydrolysis of resin. From resin turpethinic acids A, B, C, D and E isolated, all of them contained same sugar moiety. Aglycone of turpethinic acid A identified. Betulin, lipeol and sitosterol isolated from stem.
Trivrt is pungent, bitter, astringent and sweet in taste, pungent in the post digestive effect and has hot potency. It alleviates kapha and pitta doshas. It possesses light, dry and sharp attributes. It is laxative, antipyretic and vermicide in properties and is used in diseases like anemia, worm infestation, splenic disorders, fever, edema etc.
The root skin and roots of white variety of Trivrt are used for medicinal purpose. Externally, the medicated oil- Trivrt siddha taila is used for dressing the infected, foul wounds. It reduces the infection and discharges, and cleanses the wounds. In local swelling, the root paste mixed with cow’s urine is applied with great benefit.
Internally, Trivrt is useful in vast range of diseases. Trivrt was held in high esteem by the ancient sages as the best laxative amongst all. It is used in diseases like flatulence, piles, jaundice, ascites, gout, rheumatic fever, cough, asthma etc. wherein laxative is recommended. It is always given along with sunthi, rock salt or Amalaki is vitiated conditions of vata and with honey, sugar, milk or black raisins in pitta conditions, whereas with hot water or cows urine in kapha disorders. As trivrt is dry, it aggravates the vata dosha and causes abdominal pain; hence these vehicles are usually recommended with trivrt. In fever, the root powder mixed with honey is beneficial. The decoction of Trivrt, guduchi, kiratatikta, sunthi and triphala is salutary in the treatment of anemia accompanied by splenomegaly. In skin disorders, the combination of Trivrt, triphala and vidanga (in proportion (10:3:1) powders is given along with jaggery, for the duration of one month. It is also benevolent in obesity to decrease the fat. Trivrt is widely used as a safe drug in the treatment of ascites. It works well with the decoction of triphala is piles. In anasarca, the root powder is given with hot water. In poisoning, alcoholism associated with fever, Trivrt, is given as a purgative to mitigate the doshas. The decoction of its roots is rewarding in Rakta pitta. In jaundice, the roots are given along with triphala decoction and honey.
Siddha taila and ghrta etc.